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Information International rules and organization MARPOL 73 / 78 / MARPOL 73 / 78

MARPOL 73 / 78

At the international level, the issue of prevention of pollution from ships has been reviewed in the 1926 first year in Washington at a conference of representatives of 13 States. The United States at this conference proposed to introduce a total ban on oil discharges from ships and warships.

It was decided to establish a system of coastal zones, which would prohibit the disposal of the oil mixture with an oil content of more than 0,05%. Establishing the width of such zones it was left to the discretion of the States, but it should not exceed 50 miles. To prevent discharge of ballast water on ships encouraged the establishment of separators. The flag State should have to request from the courts compliance with the established exclusion zones. preliminary draft of the Convention was established, which never was not accepted.

The League of Nations Council, in 1936 year decided to convene an international conference to consider the draft, but the subsequent events in the world have made it impossible to convene a conference.

After the Second World War, the question was raised again at the United Nations. Many States emphasized the need to take measures to prevent pollution at the international level. In 1954 year on the initiative of the United Kingdom in London International Conference was convened, which adopted International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by oil OYLPOL-54. It was the first international agreement on the prevention of marine pollution from ships entered into force on July 26 1958 years.

Convention 1954 years trying to solve the problem in two ways:

1. Establish "exclusion zones" length, usually, 50 miles from the coast, which prohibits the discharge of oil and oil mixture in the ratio of 100 or more parts oil to 1 million parts of the mixture (100 mg / l).;

2. Equipment for each major port reception facilities that can accept from using the courts port non-tankers remaining on board oil slops from oil-contaminated ballast or washing water from tanks provided that such water has passed the separation process using the oil separator, a settling tank or other means.

The Conference provided for the convening of a new conference for the adoption of additional measures, three years after its entry into force. Thus, in the year 1962 IMCO convened an international conference in which the first amendment to the Convention were adopted 1954 years.

Amendments 1962 years, increased the size of the "exclusion zones to 100 i150 miles, and included in the scope of the Convention tankers gross tonnage of more than 150 t (previously actions were distributed to tankers with a capacity of 500 tons or more).

In 1969, the Convention has been substantially amended, the amendments regulate Preview ballast water discharge from the tanker when the following conditions are met:

1. Their total number in the ballast voyage shall not exceed 1 / 15000 full cargo capacity of the tanker.

2. Instantaneous rate of discharge should not exceed 60 liters per mile traveled.

3. Reset can not be done closer 50 miles from the coast.

The convention OYLPOL-54 amended and additions. However, it was recognized by the low efficiency of this international agreement on the prevention of marine pollution by oil in the rapidly developing transport oil.

The need for global protection of the world's oceans from pollution became apparent and in the city of 1973 International Maritime Organization - IMOtook International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL-73)

After the adoption MARPOL-73 convention OYLPOL-54 I have ceased to operate.

By the year 1978 participants MARPOL-73 It began only three states. By this time, as a result of tanker accidents have already been formulated new requirements that must be included in MARPOL-73. In February 1978, in London, the International Conference on Tanker Safety and Marine Pollution, which was attended by 62 States. As a result of the Conference, February 17 two protocols one of which had been taken to the protocol of 1978 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 (Minutes of MARPOL-78).

MARPOL Protocol-78 has become relative to MARPOL-73 completely self-contained and included all the provisions of the MARPOL-73 (Art. I of the Protocol).

1978 Protocol entered into force in October 2 1983 city and its participants are now more than 90 States, the gross tonnage which is about 90% of the gross tonnage of the world merchant fleet.

1973 convention, as modified by the Protocol of 1978, now known as The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL-73 / 78).

Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73 / 78) consists of the Convention and its Protocols, which reinforce the general provisions on the obligations of participants on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by specific pollutants: oil, noxious chemicals in bulk, substances carried in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution from ships.

The Convention contains common definitions of concepts such as vessel harmful substance discharge and other complemented in each application. The courts in the determination of this Convention are all vessels, including hovercraft and hydrofoils, submarines, fixed and floating platforms.

From the scope of the Convention excludes warships and government non-commercial ships, however, participants must ensure that they are as far as possible and act in accordance with the Convention. The Convention provides that any violation of it including the Annexes, shall be prohibited, regardless of place of its commission, and for such a violation in the legislation of each State Party to the Convention whose flag the ship flies should be established punishment.

The Convention MARPOL-73 / 78 It includes measures to reduce and prevent pollution by harmful substances, which are transported on vessels or formed in the course of their operation.

Regulations covering the various sources of pollution from ships today are contained in the six Annexes to the MARPOL-73 / 78.

  • Annex I Regulations for the prevention of oil pollution. It entered into force of 02.10.83
  • Annex II Regulations for the prevention of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk. It entered into force of 06.04.87
  • Annex III Regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful substances carried by sea in packaged, freight containers, portable tanks, road tanks. It entered into force of 01.07.92
  • Annex IV Regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships. Entered into force on 01.08.05, on the basis of Resolution MEPC 115 (51) was adopted 22.04.04
  • Annex V Regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships. It entered into force of 31.12.89
  • Annex VI Regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships. It entered into force on 01.01.05g.

Currently, MARPOL-73 / 78 Convention consists of three books.

Book I reproduces the modern text of articles, protocols and five annexes of the Convention.

Book II, contains interpretations of the provisions of MARPOL-73 / 78, as well as to fulfill its applications in order to ensure uniformity of action in the international maritime and legal practice.

Book III there is given Annex VI and the Technical Code of control of nitrogen oxide emissions during operation of marine engines.