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International rules and organization

Regulation of wood packaging material in international trade - addition 1

Examples of methods of secure disposal of non-conforming requirements of wood packaging material

Safe disposal of non-conforming requirements of wood packaging material is one option for pest risk management measures, and may be used by the NPPO of the importing country when an emergency action is either impossible or undesirable. The methods listed below are recommended for the secure disposal of non-conforming requirements of wood packaging material:

(1) burning, if this is possible;
(2) deep burial in sites approved by the competent authorities. (Note: the burial depth may depend on climatic conditions and found the pest, but is recommended that it be at least two meters of material should backfilled soil immediately after being placed in the pit and in the future . to be buried should be remembered also, that deep burial is not a viable option utilization of wood infested by termites or some root pathogens);
(3) processing (Note: on the chopping chips should be used only if it is combined with further processing in accordance with the recommendations of the country by the NPPO of the importing country for the destruction of harmful organisms of concern, for example, for the production of oriented strand boards);
(4) other methods endorsed by the NPPO as effective against harmful organisms of concern;
(5) in the appropriate return to the country of export.

In order to minimize the risk of introduction or spread of pests safe disposal, if required, should be carried out promptly, using these methods.


Regulation of wood packaging material in international trade - the application of ISPM 2 15

Marking and its application

Marking indicating that the wood packaging material has been subjected to approved phytosanitary treatment in accordance with this standard comprises the following required components:
- The symbol;
- code of the country;
- The code of the manufacturer or the manufacturer's processing;
- Handling code using the appropriate abbreviation according 1 application (HT or MB).

character design (which may be registered in the implementation of procedures at national, regional or international level, or in the form of a trademark, or as a certification, collective or guarantee mark) should be as similar to the symbol shown in the examples below, and should be located to the left of the other elements.

Country code
Country code has to be a two-digit code of the International Standards Organization (ISO) country (denoted in the examples as «XX»). He must be separated by a hyphen from the material manufacturer's code or processing products.

Material number of the manufacturer or the manufacturer's processing
Material number of the manufacturer or processing of products is a unique code assigned by the NPPO to the manufacturer of wood packaging material or the manufacturer of treatments that uses this marking, or any other entity that is responsible to the NPPO responsible for ensuring that the used and properly marked only properly treated wood ( designated in the examples as «000»). The number and order of digits and / or letters in the code sets the NPPO.

handling code
The code processing is the acronym adopted in the IPPC and 1 contained in the annex to apply the approved measures indicated in the examples in the form of «YY». handling code must be after the combined country code and manufacturer or material handling products. It should be on a separate code of the country and the material manufacturer's code or a bar processing manufacturer, or separated by a hyphen in the case of its location on the same line as the other codes.

handling code processing Type
NT Heat treatment
MB Fumigation with methyl bromide
DH dielectric heating

The size, font types used, and placement of markings may vary, but its size should be large enough to be visible and legible to inspectors without the use of auxiliary visual aids. This marking should be of a rectangular or square shape and placed within the frame with a vertical line separating the symbol from the code elements. To facilitate the use of the stencil can be allowed small tears in the box, a vertical line, and elsewhere among the markings.

Within the framework of marking should not contain any other information. If use for the protection of marks on the national level it is advisable to apply additional markings (eg trademarks of the manufacturer, the authorized agency logo), then this information can be located near, but outside the boundaries marking.

Marking shall:
- Be legible;
- Be durable and to prevent its transfer;
- Placed in a location visible when using wooden containers, preferably at least at two opposite sides of the timber the packaging material units.

These markings shall not be applied by hand.
You should avoid the use of red and orange colors, as they are used for the labeling of dangerous goods.

In the event that a unit of wood packaging material consists of several elements, then for the purpose of marking the resulting composite unit should be treated as a separate unit. On a composite unit of wood packaging material, consisting of both treated wood and recycled wood material (if the recycled material element does not require treatment), it seems appropriate to label the elements from recycled wood material to ensure that this marking is located in a conspicuous place And had a fairly large size. This approach to labeling refers only to integral integral units, rather than to temporary assembly structures from wood packaging material.

It may be necessary to focus on applying legible marking on a fixing timber, as the final trimming of treated wood designed for use as fasteners, may be carried out only when the vehicle is loaded. It is important that shippers ensure that all mounting wood used to secure or support commodities, was treated and was labeled as described in this Annex, and that this marking is clear and legible.

Small pieces of wood that do not have all the required marking elements not to be used as fasteners. Marking the mounting timber it can be made as follows:
- Marking on the pieces of wood intended for use as a fixture along their entire length with short intervals (Note: If the fasteners are used very little pruning, the cut of e should be such that the marking is completely retained on the mounting hardware used);
- Additional marking of treated wood mounting in a prominent position after trimming, in the event that the shipper is authorized to do so in accordance with section 4.

The following are examples of valid options for the location of required labeling elements used to certify that the wood packaging material carrying a label, has been subjected to an approved treatment. No symbol changes should not be made. marking the location of options should be taken, provided that they meet the requirements laid down in this Annex.

Example 1.

Marking indicating that the wood packaging material has been subjected to approved phytosanitary treatment in accordance with ISPM example 15 1

 Example 2.

Marking indicating that the wood packaging material has been subjected to approved phytosanitary treatment in accordance with ISPM example 15 2

 Example 3.

Marking indicating that the wood packaging material has been subjected to approved phytosanitary treatment in accordance with ISPM example 15 3

Example 4

 Marking indicating that the wood packaging material has been subjected to approved phytosanitary treatment in accordance with ISPM example 15 4

 Example 5

Marking indicating that the wood packaging material has been subjected to approved phytosanitary treatment in accordance with ISPM example 15 5

Example 6

Marking indicating that the wood packaging material has been subjected to approved phytosanitary treatment in accordance with ISPM example 15 6 



Regulation of wood packaging material in international trade - the application of ISPM 1 15

Approved processing associated with wood packaging material

Approved treatments may be applied to the packaging material units wood or pieces of wood, from which wood packaging materials must be made.
The use of debarked wood
Regardless of the type of processing used wood packaging material to be made from debarked wood. According to this standard, any number of visually separate and clearly distinct small areas of bark may remain if they are:
- A width less 3 cm (regardless of length), or
- Have a width 3 cm with an overall surface area of ​​one divided portion cortex 50 least square centimeters.
Methyl bromide treatment bark removal must be carried out before treatment, since the presence of bark on the wood can influence the effectiveness of treatment. When cooked crust removal can be performed both before and after treatment. If the size limit is specified for a certain type of heat treatment (eg, dielectric heating), the measurement of the whole crust should be taken into account.

Heat treatment
Various energy sources or processes of its receipt can be used to achieve the desired treatment parameters. For example, conventional drying in superheated steam, a chamber dryer, dry impregnation under pressure with thermal effect, and a dielectric heating (microwave in the field of high-frequency currents) may be considered the thermal treatments, with the proviso that they comply with the parameters of heat treatment specified in this standard .
NPPOs should take the necessary steps to ensure that processors tracked the processing temperature in a place that is the cold, ie at the place in the wood, which requires the most time to reach the set temperature, so that the desired temperature was maintained throughout treatment in all treated wood lot. Location is the cold point of the wood may differ depending on the energy source or the process used, the initial moisture content and temperature distribution in the wood.

When using dielectric heating of the coldest part of the timber during processing, usually a surface. In some situations (for example, dielectric heating frozen large timber until its defrosting), the coldest part of the timber may be heart.

Heat treatment using a gas-steam or dry heating chamber (treatment code for marking: NT)
When using a heat treatment process chamber fundamental requirement is to achieve a minimum temperature 56 ° C continuously for at least 30 minutes the entire layer of timber (including the core).

This temperature can be measured by placing temperature sensors in the core of the wood. In addition, when drying chambers or chambers for other heat treatments are used, the treatment regimes can be developed based on a series of test treatments during which the main temperature of the wood is measured at various locations in the heat treatment chamber and correlated by the air temperature in the chamber, taking into account the moisture content in the wood and Other essential parameters (such as the type and thickness of the wood, the intensity of the air flow and humidity). The series of tests should demonstrate that the minimum temperature of 56C is maintained continuously for at least 30 minutes throughout the thickness of the wood.

processing modes must be specified or approved by the NPPO.
Handlers must be approved by the NPPO. NPPOs should consider the following factors, compliance with which may be required in order to meet the requirements of thermal cameras for processing.
- Heat treatment chambers are sealed and have good thermal insulation, including the floor insulation.
- Heat chambers are designed so that air flow can circulate around the stacks of timber and inside it. Wood to be treated is disposed in the chamber so as to provide adequate airflow around the stack and inside the timber.
- If necessary to ensure an optimum flow of air in a heat chamber used air deflectors and mezhryadovye lining inside the stack.
- During processing fans used to circulate air and the air flow from these fans is sufficient to maintain the temperature inside the timber at a predetermined level for a specified time.
- The coldest place in the chamber is determined at every boot, and that there are arranged temperature sensors either in the wood or in the chamber.
- If processing is monitored by the temperature sensors placed in the wood, the use of at least two sensors is recommended. These temperature sensors must be able to measure the temperature of the core of the wood. The use of several temperature sensors ensures that any failure of the temperature sensor is detected during the processing. Temperature sensors are inserted into the core of the wood at a distance of at least 30 cm from the edge. For shorter boards or pellet slabs, temperature sensors are also placed in a piece of wood of the largest dimensions so as to provide a measurement of the temperature in the core. All holes drilled in the wood to house temperature sensors must be sealed with suitable material to prevent interference when measuring temperature related to convection or thermal conductivity. Particular attention should be paid to external influences on wood, for example, nails or metal inserts, which can lead to incorrect measurement.
- If the processing mode based on monitoring the air temperature in the chamber and used for processing different types of wood (for example, depending on the breed and size) on-view must be considered, the moisture content and thickness of the wood being treated. In accordance with the treatment regimen recommended to use at least two temperature sensors to monitor air temperature in the chamber during processing of wooden containers.
- If the air flow in the chamber is changed regularly during processing to take into account possible changes in the coldest point in the chamber may need a larger number of temperature sensors.
- Temperature sensors and equipment for recording data are calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions at a frequency set by the NPPO.

Heat treatment using dielectric heating (treatment code for marking: DH)
When using dielectric heating (e.g., microwave) wood packaging material consisting of a timber not exceeding 20 sm4 as measured by the smallest size, or a stack must be heated to achieve a minimum temperature 60C continuously for 1 minutes throughout the thickness of the wood (including surface). The set temperature must be reached within minutes after the start 30 obrabotki.5.
processing modes must be specified or approved by the NPPO.
Handlers must be approved by the NPPO. NPPOs should consider the following factors, compliance with which may be required in order to dielectric heating chamber meet the requirements for processing.
- Regardless of whether the dielectric heating treatment is carried out as a batch process or a continuous (conveyer) process, processing in progress is tracked timber where the temperature is likely to be very cold (usually at the surface) for maintaining a predetermined temperature. When the temperature measurement is recommended to use at least two temperature sensors for detecting any temperature sensor error.
- Handler initially confirms that the timber temperature reaches or exceeds 60 C continuously for 1 minutes the entire thickness of the wood (including its surface).
- For wood thickness of more than 5 cm dielectric heating at a frequency of 2,45 GHz should be provided by bilateral heaters or more waveguides for the distribution of microwave energy and to ensure uniformity of warming.
- Temperature sensors and equipment for recording data are calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions at a frequency set by the NPPO.
- In order to store data audit handlers heat treatments and calibration over a period of time determined by the NPPO.
Methyl bromide treatment (treatment code for marking: MB)
NPPOs are encouraged to promote the use of alternative treatments approved in this standarte6. Use of methyl bromide should be carried out taking into account the recommendations of the CPM to replace or reduce the use of methyl bromide as a phytosanitary measure (CPM, 2008 g).
Wood packing material consisting of wood pieces exceeding 20 cm. As measured by the smallest size, should not be treated with methyl bromide.
Fumigation of wood packaging material with methyl bromide should be carried out in accordance with the scheme indicated or approved by the NPPO and allowing a minimum amount of products of concentration to be achieved at 7 (XB) for 24 hours at a temperature and with a final residual concentration as specified in table 1. This KV value should be achieved throughout the thickness of the wood, including its core, although concentrations are measured in the surrounding atmosphere. The minimum temperature of wood and its surrounding atmosphere must be at least 10 C, and the minimum exposure time should be at least 24 hours. Gas concentration monitoring should be carried out through 2, 4 and 24 hours from the start of processing. In the case of a longer exposure time and a weaker concentration, additional measurements of the gas concentration at the end of the fumigation should be recorded.
If HF is not achieved through 24 hours, you should take corrective action to ensure the achievement of HF; for example, to start treatment again or extend the processing time up to 2 hours without further addition of methyl bromide to achieve the desired HF.

Handlers must be approved by the NPPO. NPPOs should consider the following factors, compliance with which may be required in order to fumigation with methyl bromide consistent with the requirements for processing.
- During the gas distribution phase of fumigation with the established procedure used by fans to ensure uniform penetration; they should be placed in such a way as to ensure quick and effective distribution for the room under fumigation the fumigant (preferably within one hour of application).
- Fumigated spaces should not be loaded more than 80% of their volume.
- Fumigated spaces should be well sealed and as far as possible, gas-tight. If you want to carry out fumigation under film, the latter must be made of gas-impermeable material and is securely sealed at the seams and at floor level.
- Paul in place of fumigation must be impervious to the fumigant; if it is permeable, lay a gas-tight coating on it.
- We recommend the use of methyl bromide through a vaporizer ( 'hot gassing ") for the complete evaporation of the fumigant as it enters the room fumigated.
-. Treatment with methyl bromide wood packaging material exceeding 20 cm as measured by the smallest size, should be performed. For this reason, to achieve the desired penetration and circulation of methyl bromide may be necessary for the separator timber stacks of packaging material.
- Concentration of methyl bromide in the air space is always measured at the point farthest from the injection point of gas, as well as elsewhere throughout the room (for example in the front lower part in the central middle portion, and rear upper portion) to confirm achievement uniform distribution of the gas. Home treatment is counted when a uniform distribution.
- In calculating the dosage of methyl bromide should take into account the availability of compensation for any gas mixtures (eg, 2% chloropicrin) to ensure that the total quantity of methyl bromide required dosage rates.
- The initial dosage and the rate of procedures for dealing with the drug after treatment should take into account the possibility of absorption of methyl bromide-treated wood packaging material or used together with him objects (eg polystyrene boxes).
- To calculate the doses of methyl bromide is used and the expected product measured or ambient temperature immediately before or during processing (the one which below).
- Wood packaging material to be fumigated, should not be wrapped or coated with materials impermeable fumigant.
- Temperature sensor and gas concentration, as well as for data logging equipment is calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions at a frequency determined by the NPPO.
- In order to store data handlers audit of methyl bromide treatments and calibration over a period of time determined by the NPPO.

Adoption of alternative treatments and revision schemes approved treatments
As new technical information becomes available, existing treatments may be reviewed and modified and alternative treatments or new treatment schemes for wood packaging material may be approved by the CPM. If a new treatment or revised treatment scheme is approved for wood packaging material and is included in this ISPM, then the material already processed under the conditions of the previously approved treatment and / or scheme does not need to be reprocessed or re-labeled.


International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures ISPM №15


ispm 15

International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) are prepared by the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention as part of the global policy and technical assistance program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations regarding plant quarantine. This program makes available to both FAO members and other interested parties these standards, guidelines and recommendations to harmonize phytosanitary measures at the international level in order to simplify trade and avoid the use of unjustified measures that would present barriers to trade.

The standards are for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) are adopted by contracting parties to the IPPC, and by FAO Members that are not contracting parties, through the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures. ISPMs are the standards, guidelines and recommendations recognized as the basis for phytosanitary measures applied by Members of the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Countries that are not contracting parties to the IPPC are encouraged to observe these standards

This standard was first adopted at the fourth session of the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures in March 2002, entitled Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade.

Amendments to Annex 1 were adopted at the first session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures in April 2006 years. The first revision was adopted at the fourth session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures in March-April 2009 years as the present standard, ISPM 15: 2009 1.Peresmotrennaya version Apps mutatis mutandis in Annex 2 8 was adopted by-second session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures in April 2013 of

This standard describes phytosanitary measures that reduce the risk of introduction and spread of quarantine pests transported in international trade with wood packaging material made from untreated wood. Wood packaging material covered by this standard includes fastening wood, but does not include wooden containers made from wood, processed in such a way that it is free of pests (for example, plywood). The phytosanitary measures described in this standard are not intended for permanent protection against littering pests or other organisms.

It is known that harmful organisms associated with wood packaging material adversely affect forest health and biological diversity. It is assumed that the application of this standard will significantly reduce the spread of pests and, therefore, to mitigate their negative impact. Treatment with methyl bromide is included in this standard in the absence of alternative treatments available only in certain situations or not for all countries, or the absence of other suitable (non-woody) packaging materials. It is known that methyl bromide depletes the ozone layer. Therefore, the CPM Recommendation has been adopted Replacement or reduction of the use of methyl bromide as a phytosanitary measure (CPM, 2008). The search for alternative measures that have a more sparing impact on the environment continues.

Wood packaging materials from unprocessed wood represent a pathway for the introduction and spread of pests. Since the origin of wood packaging materials is often difficult to determine, the internationally accepted measures are described, which significantly reduce the risk of spreading pests. The NPPO is encouraged to accept wood packaging materials to which the approved measures have been applied, without additional requirements. Such wood packaging materials include fastening wood, but do not include recycled wood packaging materials.

The procedures for checking whether the measure has been applied endorsed by, including the use of an internationally recognized labeling, should be involved in both the exporting and the importing country. Other measures, which reached a two-way agreement, are also considered in this standard. If the wood packaging material does not meet the requirements of this standard, NPPOs may neutralize their approved manner.

Definitions of phytosanitary terms used in ISPM 15 standard can be read on the page (Glossary of phytosanitary terms).


At the national organizations for Plant Protection (NPPO) of exporting and importing countries have specific responsibilities. Processing and application of labeling should always be administered by the NPPO. NPPOs, authorizing the use of labeling, should oversee the conduct of treatments using labeling and its application of the relevant manufacturers or entities conducting processing (or, as a minimum, audit or analysis), as well as the need to establish the procedure of inspection or monitoring and auditing.

Special requirements apply to the repaired or converted wood packaging material. NPPOs of importing countries should consider approved phytosanitary measures as the basis for authorizing the import of wood packaging material without additional phytosanitary import requirements for wood packaging material and may also check upon importation whether it meets the requirements of this standard. If the wood packaging material does not meet the requirements of this standard, the NPPOs are also responsible for the measures taken and. As appropriate, for notification of non-compliance.

1. The basis of regulation
Wood, obtained from live trees or dead wood, can be contaminated with harmful organisms. Wood packaging material is often made from fresh wood that has not been processed or processed to remove or destroy pests, and therefore remains the pathway for the introduction and spread of quarantine pests. It has been proven that the particularly high risk of introductions and spread of quarantine pests is represented by fastening wood. Moreover, wood packaging material is very often used repeatedly, repaired or remodeled (as described in section 4.3).

It is difficult to determine the true origin of different parts of wood packaging material, which makes it difficult to establish their phytosanitary status. Therefore, with respect to wood packaging material, it is often not possible to routinely analyze phytosanitary risk in order to determine the need for phytosanitary measures and their volume. For this reason, this standard describes internationally accepted measures that can be applied to wood packaging material by all countries with a view to A significant reduction in the risk of introduction and spread of most quarantine pests that may be associated with this material

2. Adjustable wood packaging material
These guidelines apply to all forms of wood packaging material that may serve as through the spread of harmful organisms representing a risk mainly to living trees. This includes such wood packaging material, such as a crate, boxes, packing boxes, fixing drevesina1, pallets, cable drums and reels / spools, which can be in almost any imported consignment, including those that are not normally exposed to phytosanitary inspection.

2.1 Exceptions
The following materials are fairly low risk, and for this reason they are not covered by this standarta2:
- Wood packaging material is completely made of thin wood (no more 6 mm thick);
- Wood containers made entirely from recycled wood-based material, such as a multi-layer plywood, chipboard, oriented strand board or veneer, which was made using an adhesive, heat and pressure, or a combination of these techniques;
- Barrels for wine and spirits, which are heated during the manufacturing process;
- Gift boxes for wine, cigars and other commodities made from wood that has been processed and / or made in a manner that eliminates the possibility of contamination by harmful organisms;
- Sawdust, wood shavings and wood wool;
- Wooden structural elements, permanently attached to the trucks and containers.

3. Phytosanitary measures in relation to wood packaging material
This standard sets out phytosanitary measures (including treatment) that have been approved for wood packaging material and provides for the approval of new or revised treatments.

3.1 Approved phytosanitary measures
The approved phytosanitary measures described in this standard consist of phytosanitary procedures, including processing and labeling of wood packaging material. The use of labeling eliminates the need for the use of a phytosanitary certificate, since it indicates the use of internationally recognized phytosanitary measures. All NPPOs should consider these phytosanitary measures as the basis for allowing the import of wood packaging material without special additional requirements. Phytosanitary measures other than the approved measures described in this standard require technical justification.
The treatments described in 1 application considered reliably effective against most harmful to organisms living trees associated with wood packaging material used in international trade. These treatments are combined with the use of debarked wood in the manufacture of wood packaging, which also helps to reduce the likelihood of re-infection with harmful organisms for live trees. These measures were adopted on the basis of consideration:
- The spectrum of harmful organisms against which they are directed;
- The effectiveness of treatment;
- Technical and / or commercial feasibility.

There are three main steps in the production of approved wood packaging material (including fastening wood): processing, manufacturing and labeling. These actions can be performed by different performers or one performer can perform several or all of these actions. For ease of understanding, this standard is addressed to manufacturers (those who manufacture wood packaging material and can label on appropriately treated wood packaging material) and to those who conduct treatments (those who carry out approved treatments and can label the appropriately treated wood packaging material).

The wood packaging material subjected to these approved measures is designated by the official marking in accordance with Annex 2. This marking consists of a special symbol used together with the codes indicating the specific country, the responsible manufacturer or the organization that carried out the processing and the type of processing performed. Hereinafter, the totality of all components of such a designation is referred to as "marking". The internationally recognized marking, which is not tied to a specific language, facilitates the process of recognizing processed wood packaging material when viewed before export, at points of entry and elsewhere.

NPPOs should consider that the marking as specified in Annex 2, the basis for resolving the import of wood packaging material without further specific requirements.
For the manufacture of wood packaging material to be used peeled wood, held as one of the approved treatments specified in Annex 1. Tolerances for residues of crust are set out in Annex 1.

3.2 Approval of new or revised treatments
As new technical information becomes available, existing treatments can be revised and modified, and the CPM can approve new alternative treatments and / or wood packaging material (s). ISPM 28: 2007 provides guidance on the approval process for the IPPC processes. If any new treatment or revised scheme for the processing of wood packaging material is approved and included, the material already processed according to the conditions of the previously approved treatment and / or scheme will not need to be re-processed or re-marked.

3.3 Alternative bilateral agreements
In addition to the measures set out in Annex 1 NPPOs may recognize and other measures through bilateral agreements with trading partners. In such cases, the marking contained in Annex 2, should not be used unless all requirements of this standard.

4. The responsibility of the NPPO
In order to prevent the introduction and spread of pests, exporting and importing contracting parties and their NPPOs assume certain liabilities (as defined in Articles I, IV and VII of the IPPC). The following are specific obligations in connection with the application of this standard.

4.1 Regulatory Issues
Processing and labeling (and / or associated systems) should always be within the competence of the NPPO. NPPOs permitting the use of this marking are responsible for ensuring that all systems authorized and approved for the implementation of this standard comply with all necessary requirements set out in this standard, and that the wood packaging material (or wood from which it is intended to make wood Packaging material) having the marking has been processed and / or manufactured in accordance with this standard. The duties of the NPPO include:
- Authorization, registration and accreditation, as appropriate;
- Control of the processing systems and labeling carried out to verify compliance (further information regarding related responsibilities is provided in ISPM 7: 1997);
- Inspection, establishing verification procedures and, where appropriate, the audit (for more information refer to ISPM 23: 2005).
The NPPO should supervise (or, as a minimum, audit or analysis) for carrying out treatments, as well as to give, where appropriate, authorize the use and allocation of the mark. Processing should be carried out prior to the marking in order to prevent marking presence in poorly or incorrectly treated wood packaging material.

4.2 application and use of marking 
Installed kinds of markings applied to wood packaging material treated in accordance with this standard shall comply with the requirements set out in Annex 2.

4.3 requirements for processing and labeling for the recycled, refurbished or converted wood packaging material
NPPOs of countries where wood packaging material bearing the mark described in Annex 2, repaired or altered, are responsible for ensuring full compliance with this standard systems related to export of such wood packaging material, as well as for monitoring compliance.

4.3.1 Reuse of wood packaging material
A unit of wood packaging material treated and marked in accordance with this standard, which has not been repaired, do not alter or otherwise altered does not require re-treatment or marking throughout the useful life of the unit.

4.3.2 Renovated wood packaging material
Repaired wood packaging material is considered to be a wood packaging material in which up to one third of the elements have been removed and replaced. In the event that the marked wood packaging material is to be repaired, the NPPO should ensure that only wood treated in accordance with this standard or wood products made from treated wood is used for this repair (see section 2.1). If the treated wood is used for repair, each added element must be marked separately in accordance with this standard.

The presence on wood packaging material, several markings, can create problems in determining the origin of this wood packaging material if it detects pests. It is recommended that the NPPOs of countries where the wood packaging material is repaired limit the number of different markings that may appear on one unit of wood packaging material. In this regard, the NPPOs of countries where wood packaging material is being repaired may require that the repaired wood packaging material has been erased prior to marking, the unit has been re-processed in accordance with annex 1, and then marked in accordance with annex 2. If methyl bromide is used for re-treatment, the information contained in the CPM Recommendation should be taken into account Replacement or reduction of methyl bromide use as a phytosanitary measure (CPM, 2008).

If there is any doubt that all elements of a repaired wood packaging unit have been processed in accordance with this standard, or the origin of this unit of wood packaging material or its components is difficult to establish, the NPPOs of countries where wood packaging material is being repaired should require that this repaired The wood packaging material has been re-processed, destroyed or otherwise not allowed to move in international trade as a ve wood packaging material according to the present standard. In the case of re-treatment, all previously marked markings must be permanently destroyed (for example, by painting or removing). After re-treatment, the marking must be repainted in accordance with this standard.

4.3.3 Converted wood packaging material
If replaced by more than one third element unit of wood packaging material, this unit is considered to be reworked. During this process, the various elements (extra alteration if necessary) may be combined and then re-assembled into the wood packaging material for its future use. Converted wood packaging material may result include both new and previously used components.
Any previously marking must be permanently destroyed in the converted wood packaging material (for example, by painting or removal). Converted wood packaging material to be reprocessed, after which labeling should be applied anew in accordance with this standard.

4.4 Transit
If the goods in transit, contain wood packaging material does not meet the requirements of this standard, NPPOs of the transit countries have the right to require the application of measures designed to ensure that no unacceptable risks from this wood packaging material. More detailed guidance on the organization of transit are listed in ISPM 25: 2006.

4.5 procedures at import
Since wood packaging materials are present in most shipments of goods, including those that are not themselves normally subject to phytosanitary control, it is important for the NPPO to cooperate with organizations that are not usually involved in verifying compliance with phytosanitary import requirements. For example, cooperation with customs services and other interested agencies and organizations will help the NPPO to obtain information on the availability of wood packaging material. This is important in order to effectively identify possible inconsistencies in wood packaging material with the requirements of this standard.

4.6 Phytosanitary measures to the point of entry for non-compliance requirements
Relevant information regarding the non-compliance and emergency action is contained in sections on 20 ISPM: ISPM 2004 and 13: 2001. Taking into account the frequent re-use of wood packaging material, NPPOs should take into account that revealed a discrepancy may occur soon in the country of production, repair or alteration than in the exporting country or the transit country.

In the event that the wood packaging material does not have the required marking or the identification of pests indicates a possible ineffectiveness of the treatment, the NPPO should respond appropriately and, if necessary, an emergency action may be taken. Such an action can be a delay in the cargo when clarifying the situation, then, if necessary, removing inappropriate material, processing 3, destruction (or other reliable disposal) or transshipment. For more examples of acceptable options, see Appendix 1. With respect to any emergency action taken, the principle of minimum impact must be observed, and the consignment itself should be distinguished from the accompanying batch of wood packaging material. In addition, if emergency action is required and the NPPO uses methyl bromide, the relevant aspects of the CPM Recommendation should be met Replace or reduce the use of methyl bromide as a phytosanitary measure (CPM, 2008).

In cases of detection of living pests, the NPPO of the importing country should notify the exporting country accordingly, or, if possible, the country of manufacture. Where a unit of wood packaging material has more than one marking, the NPPO should attempt to determine the origin of the non-conforming parts before the notification of non-compliance is sent. It is also welcomed to send the NPPO notifications in the absence of marking and other inconsistencies. Taking into account the provisions of section 4.3.2, it should be noted that the presence of multiple markings on one unit of wood packaging material is not a non-fulfillment of requirements.


The International Maritime Organization / IMO

IMOThe International Maritime Organization or IMO (International Maritime Organization, IMO) is an international intergovernmental organization that is a specialized agency of the United Nations and serves as a vehicle for cooperation and exchange of information on technical issues related to international commercial shipping.

The rapid development of international trade relations in the early XIX century, contributed to the ratification of a huge number of international agreements relating to maritime safety. Take a variety of agreements on preventing Collisions, Tonnage Measurement of Ships,

By the end of the XIX century it was proposed to start a permanent trade association, for the consideration of the operational safety of navigation tasks. In 1888, the Nordic countries, a proposal was made to proceed to the creation of the International Maritime Bureau to solve the technical problems of seaworthiness.

The result was the founding of the International Maritime Committee in 1897, engaged in the consideration of the law of the sea. The Committee adopted several conventions (commonly known as "Brussels"), later taken as the basis of modern.

In Geneva, March 6 1948, at a conference convened by the United Nations adopted Convention on the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) (Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, IMCO).

It was the first ever international body to deal exclusively with maritime affairs. On March 17, 1958, the convention entered into force and the newly created organization began its activities, the organization determined the following important points.

1. Provide a mechanism for cooperation in the field of technical regulation of practical issues affecting the international commercial transportation.

2. Promote and encourage the harmonization of the maximum practicable standards of maritime safety sphere, not marine pollution from ships, efficiency of navigation.

3. Consider the legal and administrative tasks related goals enshrined in Article.

In 9-th session of the Assembly (Resolution A.358 (IX)) its name has been changed since it was assumed that the term "advisory" could mistakenly be interpreted as a limitation of authority or responsibility, respectively, of the title "intergovernmental" - indirectly, caused suspicion and mistrust.

Based on these considerations, the replacement of the name on the International Maritime Organization was absolutely necessary to enhance the role of the IMO on an international level in order to place the responsibility for the implementation of various international conventions, the establishment of standards and norms related to the preservation of human life and the aquatic environment from intentional or unintentional contamination.

Already since May 22 1982 years its current name acts The International Maritime Organization, or IMO... The headquarters of the organization is located in London.

IMO activities are aimed at the abolition of discriminatory practices affecting international merchant shipping, as well as the adoption of standards (standards) to ensure maritime safety and the prevention of pollution from ships environmental protection, primarily of the marine environment. 

In a sense, the organization is a forum in which the member states of this organization exchange information, discuss legal, technical and other problems related to shipping, as well as pollution from ships of the environment, primarily the marine environment.

As of the year 2016, 171 is IMO Member States and Associate Members 3 (Faroe Islands, Hong Kong, Macau). The supreme body of the organization is the Assembly of Member States. Sessions of the Assembly meet once a year 2.

Member states of the International Maritime Organization

Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bahrain, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Vanuatu, Hungary Venezuela, Vietnam, Gabon, Guyana, Haiti, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Germany, Honduras, Hong Kong (China), Grenada, Greece, Georgia, Denmark, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic , Egypt, Israel, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Ireland, Iceland Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Jordan, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mauritius, Madagascar, Mauritania, Macao (China), Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mexico, Monaco, Mozambique, Mongolia , Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Netherlands, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Norway, United Republic of Tanzania the highlight of Tanzania, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, the Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Romania, Samoa, San Marino, San Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Senegal, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Serbia and Montenegro, Singapore, Syrian Arab Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America, Solom ONES Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sierra Leone, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uruguay Faroe Islands Fiji, the Philippines, Finland, France, Croatia, Czech Republic, Chile, Switzerland, Sweden, Sri Lanka, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, South Africa, Jamaica, Japan.

There is also the IMO Council, which consists of 40 states, including Russia. The states are divided into three large groups: 10 leading maritime states, 10 other states significant in terms of international maritime trade, and 20 maritime states elected to the Council to ensure geographical representation of different regions of the world. In addition to the Assembly, IMO has 5 committees:

on the Maritime Safety Committee (Maritime Safety Committee, MSC - MSC);
the Marine Environment Protection Committee (Marine Environment Protection Committee, MEPC - MEPC);
Legal Committee (LEG - YURKOM);
Technical Cooperation Committee (CCC);
to facilitate navigation formalities Committee (FAL);

9 and subcommittees (consisting of MSC or MEPC) and the Secretariat headed by the Secretary General. Since 2012, the representative of Japan Koji Sekimidzu was elected General Secretary.

All regulatory and legal documents prepared in subcommittees and considered at the session of the Committee considered and adopted, as a rule, at the regular sessions of the Assembly. The most serious, strategic decisions can make decisions organized by the IMO diplomatic conference.

IMO takes decisions in the form of the Organization's resolutions, to which, if necessary, various documents (codes, circular letters, amendments to existing documents - conventions, codes, etc.) can be attached. Subject to the conditions and terms of entry into force, such mandatory decisions must be implemented by the Administrations (the Governments of the member countries). The decisions of the IMO Assembly that do not change or supplement the adopted conventions are of a recommendatory nature and can be carried out by the national maritime administrations by including decisions (or making their own decisions on them) in national legislation.

Organization's activities

The first IMO task was to adopt a new version SOLAS Convention (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, SOLAS - SOLAS)The most important of all the conventions dealing with maritime safety. The Convention was concluded in 1960, after which the IMO has directed its attention to issues such as the promotion of international maritime transport (Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic 1965 years), determining the position of the load line (Convention on Load marke1966 year) and the transport of dangerous goods, it has also been revised system for measuring tonnage (International Convention on tonnage measurement of ships 1969 years).

November 1 1974, at the International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea, SOLAS new text was adopted. In 1988, at the International Conference on the harmonized system of survey and certification was adopted by the Protocol to the Convention. In 1992, the IMO issued a so-called consolidated text of the SOLAS Convention.

Although maritime safety was and remains the most important task of IMO, in the mid-60s the problem of environmental pollution, primarily marine pollution, came to the fore. The increase in the number of oil products transported by sea, as well as the size of ships carrying these oil products, was of particular concern. The scale of the problem was demonstrated by the accident of the tanker Torrey Canyon in 1967, when 120 tons of oil hit the sea.

Over the next few years, the IMO has adopted a number of measures aimed at preventing tanker accidents and minimizing the consequences of these accidents. The organization also took environmental pollution caused by actions such as cleaning oil tanks and machinery spaces dumping of waste - the tonnage they cause more harm than pollution resulting from accidents.

The most important of these measures was the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73 / 78) (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, MARPOL)It was adopted in the year 1973, 1978 and modified by the Protocol of the year. It covers not only cases of emergency and / or operational oil pollution but also pollution of the sea by liquid chemicals, harmful substances in packaged form, by sewage, garbage and pollution to air pollution vessels.

In 1990 year has also been prepared and signed the International Convention for preparedness in case of oil pollution, Response and Cooperation.

In addition, IMO has decided the task of creating a system designed to ensure compensation to those who suffered financially due to contamination. Matching two multilateral agreements (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage and the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage) were adopted and the 1969 1971, respectively. They simplify and speed up the procedure for obtaining compensation for pollution.

Both Conventions were revised in 1992 and again in 2000, which increased the limits of compensation payable to victims of pollution. A large number of other international agreements and documents on issues affecting international shipping have also been and are being prepared under the auspices of the IMO.

Huge progress made in communication technology have made it possible to produce lasting improvements in the maritime distress rescue system. In 1970-ies was put in place a global system for search and rescue distress. Then there was established the International Mobile Satellite Organization (International Maritime Satellite Organization, INMARSAT -INMARSAT), which seriously improved the conditions for the transfer of radio and other communications to and from ships at sea.

In 1978, IMO established World Maritime Day to draw attention to the issue of maritime safety and the conservation of marine biological resources.

In 1992 it was identified stages of the implementation of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System, GMDSS). Since February 1999, the GMDSS was fully operational and now tolerate any point of the globe vessel in distress can get help, even if the crew does not have time to broadcast a signal for help, because the corresponding message will be sent automatically.

Other measures developed by the IMO, the Container Security, bulk cargo, tankers for the transport of liquefied natural gas, as well as other types of vessels. 

Special attention was paid to the training standards of the crew, including the adoption of a special International Convention on Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (International Convention for the Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping, STCW - STCW), which entered into force in April 28 1984 years. In 1995, the STCW Convention was significantly revised. Significant changes in the content of the STCW Convention have been made later, including 2010 year at a conference in Manila (Philippines).

Currently it recommended to call a convention "STCW as amended,» (STCW as amended).
In 1983, the IMO in Malmö (Sweden) was founded by the World Maritime University, which provides training leaders, teachers and other professionals in the field of navigation.

In 1989 year in Valletta (Malta) was created by the International Institute of Marine IMO law, which trains lawyers in international law of the sea. At the same time in Trieste (Italy) it was founded by the International Maritime Academy, conducting specialized short-term courses on various maritime disciplines. 


 MARPOL 73 / 78

At the international level, the issue of preventing pollution from ships was considered for the first time in 1926 in Washington at a conference of representatives of 13 states. At this conference, the United States proposed to introduce a complete ban on oil discharges from sea vessels and warships.

It was decided to establish a system of coastal zones in which the discharge of oil mixtures with an oil content exceeding 0,05% would be prohibited. The determination of the width of such zones was left to the discretion of the states, but it should not exceed 50 miles. The installation of separators was encouraged to avoid the discharge of ballast water on board ships. The flag state should have required ships to comply with established exclusion zones. A preliminary draft of the Convention was created, which was never adopted.

The Council of the League of Nations in 1936 decided to convene an international conference to consider the project, but further events in the world made the convening of the conference impossible.

After the Second World War, the question was raised again at the United Nations. Many States emphasized the need to take measures to prevent pollution at the international level. In 1954 year on the initiative of the United Kingdom in London International Conference was convened, which adopted International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by oil OYLPOL-54. It was the first international agreement on the prevention of marine pollution from ships entered into force on July 26 1958 years.

Convention 1954 years trying to solve the problem in two ways: 

1. Establish "exclusion zones" length, usually, 50 miles from the coast, which prohibits the discharge of oil and oil mixture in the ratio of 100 or more parts oil to 1 million parts of the mixture (100 mg / l).;

2. Equipment for each major port reception facilities that can accept from using the courts port non-tankers remaining on board oil slops from oil-contaminated ballast or washing water from tanks provided that such water has passed the separation process using the oil separator, a settling tank or other means.

The Conference provided for the convening of a new conference for the adoption of additional measures, three years after its entry into force. Thus, in the year 1962 IMCO convened an international conference in which the first amendment to the Convention were adopted 1954 years.

The 1962 amendments increased the size of the “exclusion zones to 100 and 150 miles, and also included tankers with a gross tonnage of more than 150 tons in the scope of the Convention (previously, the actions extended to tankers with a capacity of 500 tons and more).

In 1969, the Convention was substantially amended to regulate the discharge of ballast water from a tanker under the following conditions:

1. Their total number in the ballast voyage shall not exceed 1 / 15000 full cargo capacity of the tanker.

2. Instantaneous rate of discharge should not exceed 60 liters per mile traveled.

3. Reset can not be done closer 50 miles from the coast. 

The convention OYLPOL-54 amended and additions. However, it was recognized by the low efficiency of this international agreement on the prevention of marine pollution by oil in the rapidly developing transport oil.

The need for global protection of the world's oceans from pollution became apparent already in 1973. International Maritime Organization - IMO took International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL-73)

After the adoption MARPOL-73 convention OYLPOL-54 ceased to act.

By the year 1978 participants MARPOL-73 only three states became. By this time, as a result of tanker accidents, new requirements had already been formulated, which had to be included in MARPOL-73. In February 1978, the International Conference on Tanker Safety and Marine Pollution Prevention was held in London, in which 62 countries took part. As a result of the work of the Conference, on February 17, two protocols were adopted, one of which was the 1978 protocol to International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 (Minutes of MARPOL-78).

MARPOL Protocol-78 has become relative to MARPOL-73 completely self-contained and included all the provisions of the MARPOL-73 (Art. I of the Protocol).

1978 Protocol entered into force in October 2 1983 city and its participants are now more than 90 States, the gross tonnage which is about 90% of the gross tonnage of the world merchant fleet. 

1973 convention, as modified by the Protocol of 1978, now known as International Convention for the Prevention of Environmental Pollution from Ships (MARPOL-73/78).

Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73 / 78) consists of the Convention and its Protocols, which reinforce the general provisions on the obligations of participants on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by specific pollutants: oil, noxious chemicals in bulk, substances carried in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution from ships.

The Convention contains general definitions of such concepts as ship, hazardous substance, discharge and others, supplemented in each of the Annexes. Vessels as defined by this Convention are all vessels, including hovercraft and hydrofoils, submarines, fixed and floating platforms.

Warships and government non-commercial vessels are excluded from the scope of the Convention, but Parties should ensure that they also act in accordance with the Convention wherever possible. The Convention provides that any violation of it, including the Annexes, is prohibited, regardless of the place of its commission, and for such a violation in the legislation of each state party to the Convention, under the flag of which the ship sails, penalties should be established.

The Convention MARPOL-73 / 78 It includes measures to reduce and prevent pollution by harmful substances, which are transported on vessels or formed in the course of their operation.

Regulations covering the various sources of pollution from ships today are contained in the six Annexes to the MARPOL-73 / 78.

  • Annex I Regulations for the prevention of oil pollution. It entered into force of 02.10.83
  • Annex II Regulations for the prevention of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk. It entered into force of 06.04.87
  • Annex III Regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful substances carried by sea in packaged, freight containers, portable tanks, road tanks. It entered into force of 01.07.92
  • Annex IV Regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships. Entered into force on 01.08.05, on the basis of Resolution MEPC 115 (51) was adopted 22.04.04
  • Annex V Regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships. It entered into force of 31.12.89
  • Annex VI Regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships. It entered into force on 01.01.05g.

Currently, MARPOL-73 / 78 Convention consists of three books.

Book I reproduces the modern text of articles, protocols and five annexes of the Convention.

Book II contains the interpretation of the provisions of MARPOL 73/78, as well as the implementation of its annexes in order to ensure uniformity of actions in international maritime and legal practice.

Book III there is given Annex VI and the Technical Code of control of nitrogen oxide emissions during operation of marine engines.




International Code for the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Sea (IMDG Code) IMDG CODE

International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) introduced Assembly International Maritime Organization (IMO) September 27, 1965 (Resolution A.81 (IV)) and recommended for use in countries that have signed the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. Currently, the IMDG Code is a universally recognized international document regulating the carriage of dangerous goods by sea.

Compliance with the IMDG Code implements the mandatory provisions SOLAS Convention (SOLAS-74), As amended, and International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73 / 78).

In 1960 of the Conference on Safety of Life at Sea, it encouraged Governments to adopt a single classification for international carriage of dangerous goods by sea to supplement the provisions contained in 1960 of the International Convention on the Protection Life at Sea (SOLAS). And there was the IMDG Code.

The resolution adopted at the conference in the year 1960, approved that the proposed code should cover issues such as packaging, container transport and storage, with special emphasis on the segregation of incompatible substances.

The Working Group on the Maritime Safety Committee of the IMO has started the preparation of the Code in the year 1961, in close cooperation with the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, which the report 1956, the established minimum requirements for the transport of dangerous goods all modes of transport.

Agreement on the International Maritime Dangerous Goods. IMDG Code was developed as a single international contract for the carriage of dangerous goods by sea, it covers issues such as packaging, container transport and storage, with special emphasis on the segregation of incompatible substances. 

Since its adoption by the IMO Assembly in the fourth year 1965, IMDG Code has undergone many changes, both in appearance and content, to keep pace with the ever-changing needs of the industry. 

The amendments to the IMDG Code derive from a proposal submitted directly to IMO by the Member States and the amendments necessary for adoption due to a change in the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, which sets out the basic requirements for all modes of transport.

Amendments to the provisions of the United Nations Recommendations are made on the basis of two-year cycle, and about two years after their adoption, they accepted the authorities responsible for the regulation of different transport modes. Thus, a basic set of requirements applicable to all transport modes is established and implemented, thus ensuring that problems do not occur at the intermodal interfaces.

For the purposes of this Code, the dangerous goods are classified in different classes, to subdivide a number of these classes, as well as to identify and describe the characteristics and properties of the substances, materials and articles that fall within each class or subclass. General provisions for each class or subclass are shown.

Some dangerous goods are listed in the list of dangerous goods to a class and specific requirements.
According to marine pollutants eligibility criteria for the purposes of Annex III of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 years relating thereto (MARPOL 73 / 78), a number of hazardous substances in the various classes also have been identified as substances harmful to the marine environment.

IMDG Code has been adopted as an international benchmark for safe transport or transport of dangerous goods or hazardous materials.

Implementation of the Code is required in connection with the obligations of members of a single national government in the framework of the SOLAS Convention (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73 / 78). It is designed for use not only the navigator, but also all those who connectedness with shipping.

IMDG Code Contains guidance on terminology, packaging, labeling, segregation, handling and emergency response. The HNS Convention covers hazardous and noxious substances that are included in the IMDG Code.

Code is updated and maintained by CCC (previously DSC) Sub-Committee on International Marine, the organization every year 2.

Current edition is the edition of the IMDG Code 2016. 



Incoterms Incoterms, International commercial terms are international rules in a dictionary format, the purpose of which is to unambiguously interpret the most widely used trade terms in the field of foreign trade.

Thus, it can significantly reduce the uncertainties of different interpretations of the terms in different countries. Frequently, parties to a contract are unaware of the different trading practices in their respective countries. This can give rise to misunderstandings, disputes and litigation.

To resolve possible misunderstandings International Chamber of Commerce has been published for the first time in 1936, the set of international rules for the interpretation of trade terms. These rules were known as "Incoterms 1936". Amendments and additions were published in 1953, 1967, 1976, 1980, 1990, 20002010 years to bring these rules in line with modern international trade practice.

International trade terms are the standard terms of international sales contracts, which are defined in advance in an internationally recognized document, in particular, used the sales contract in a standard developed by the International Chamber of Commerce.

The basic principles laid down in terms of Incoterms are 

1.Raspredelenie between buyer and seller of transportation costs for delivery of goods, ie, determining which costs and how long the seller bears, and which, from what moment, the buyer.

2.Moment transfer from the seller to the risk buyer (LIABILITY) for any damage, loss or accidental destruction of the goods.

3.Opredelenie date of delivery of the goods, that is the definition of the actual transfer of the goods by the seller to the buyer or his representative.  

Keep in mind that the scope of Incoterms is limited to matters relating to the rights and obligations of parties to the contract of sale in respect of the delivery of goods sold (the word goods here of "tangibles", not including "intangibles" such as computer software).

Beyond the Incoterms rules are the transfer of ownership from the seller to the buyer, as well as the consequences of failure by the parties obligations under the contract of sale of goods, including the grounds for exemption from liability of the parties that governed by the applicable law or the Vienna Convention. The structure is formed in terms of volume growth of duties sequence Seller in respect of the basic conditions of supply.

The key to the use of Incoterms: is that the regulation of the moment of the transfer of ownership should be regulated separately in the contract, it is important that the transfer of ownership coincided transition to the buyer the risk of accidental loss or risk of damage to the goods.


Most often in practice, there are two particular misconceptions about Incoterms.

1. Misunderstanding of the Incoterms as applying to the contract of carriage, and not to the contract of sale.

2. The misconception that they have to cover all the duties which parties may wish to include in the contract.

Incoterms regulate only the relationship between sellers and buyers under the sale and purchase agreements, moreover, only in certain aspects. At that time, both exporters and importers to consider the very practical relationship between the various contracts needed to perform an international sales transaction - where not only the contract of sale, but also contracts of carriage, insurance and financing.  

Incoterms relate to only one of these contracts, namely the contract of sale.

It should be stressed that Incoterms are not intended to replace the terms of the agreement, necessary for a complete contract - sale either by the incorporation of standard terms or by individually negotiated terms.

Incoterms do not regulate the consequences of breach of contract and release from liability owing to various impediments. These issues must be resolved by other stipulations in the contract - sale and the applicable laws.

Incoterms were always originally intended to be used when goods were sold for delivery across national borders: thus Incoterms are international trade terms.


Each of the rules "Incoterms" are grouped into basic categories, each of which has a clear direction, defined as a term.

Each term is an abbreviation, the first letter indicates the point of transition of obligations and risks from the seller to the buyer.

  • Group E - Shipping, transfer of liabilities - at the place of departure (departure). The seller must deliver goods to the buyer directly by the manufacturer, its warehouse, customs clearance of the goods the seller is not made; Seller is not responsible for loading the goods on the vehicle.
  • Group F - Main carriage paid by the seller (main carriage unpaid), the transfer of liabilities from the departure terminal for the main carriage. The Seller undertakes to deliver the goods at the disposal of the carrier, which the buyer hires its own.
  • Group C - Main carriage paid by the seller (main carriage paid), the transfer of liabilities - at the arrival terminal for the main carriage. The seller must contract for carriage of the goods, but without assuming the risk of its accidental loss or damage to the goods.
  • Group D - Arrival, transfer of liabilities to the buyer, a full service (arrival). The seller bears all shipping costs and assumes all risks prior to delivery of the goods to the destination country.

Incoterms in picture


The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea - SOLAS

The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS, SOLAS, International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) of all international agreements on the safety of merchant ships is, the most important working version of the document today is SOLAS-74.

Each vessel is within the scope of this normative document, engaged on international voyages must comply with its requirements. Otherwise, it may be delayed, or the port is not permitted. 
The establishment of minimum standards to meet the safety requirements for construction, equipment and operation of ships is the main objective of the international Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea.

State whose flag the vessel is required to ensure that vessels comply with the requirements of SOLAS. To prove their compliance with the Convention provided for multiple certificates. Such documents (commonly referred to as "the Convention's") issued either by the Administration of the flag, or on its behalf ( "on the authority of the Administration") - with the appropriate instructions.

Controls also allow governments to inspect ships are under flags of other countries, especially if there are clear reasons to doubt that the vessel and / or its equipment does not substantially meet the requirements of the Convention. This procedure is called "port state control» (Port State Control, PSC).
The current text of the SOLAS Convention includes Articles setting out general obligations, amendment procedure and so on. N., And is accompanied by Annex divided into 12 Heads.

Historical information

The first version of the document was adopted in 1914, after the sinking of the Titanic, the second in 1929 after the sinking of the Vestris, the third in 1948, after the explosion of the Grancan, the fourth in 1960.
Convention as amended by 1960 years, which was adopted in June 17 1960 and was introduced with effect from May 26 1965 years, it was the first significant challenge International Maritime Organization (IMO) the main purpose of which was the safety of ships and their crews.

This Convention covers a wide range of measures designed to improve the safety of navigation conditions. It was a significant step forward in modernizing regulations and maintain the pace of technological development in the shipping industry.

It is necessary to maintain regulatory document up to date by taking periodic amendments. But in practice, because of the complicated procedures for the adoption of new amendments to the introduction of changes in the procedure was too slow. It soon became clear that the introduction of the amendments into force within a reasonable period of time to ensure it will be impossible.

For this reason, 1 November 1974, the International Conference on the Safety of Life at Sea adopted a new text of the SOLAS Convention. It included not only the actual changes agreed to by the specified date, but also a new procedure for making corrections by default - a procedure designed to ensure that the changes that were adopted could enter into force within a minimal short period of time. For example, instead of requiring that an amendment enter into force after its adoption by two-thirds of the signatories to the Convention, the new default acceptance procedure assumes that the amendment will enter into force after that date unless, by that date, objections are received from the agreed number Parties.

The current text of the Convention is also known as "the SOLAS 1974, as amended." SOLAS-74 25 entered into force in May 1980g.

These measures helped in numerous cases, to update, modify and correct the Convention as amended by 1974 years. So, in 1988 year it was adopted Protocol (10 November at the International Conference on the Harmonized System of Survey and Certification). In 1992, the IMO issued a so-called consolidated text of the Convention.

In the period from December 9 13-2002 year held in London by the Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Security to Chapter XI was amended, which came into force on July 1 2004 years.